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Administrative infrastructure was quickly built by early 1842, but piracy, disease, and hostile Qing policies prevented the government from attracting merchants.During the Taiping Rebellion in the 1850s, many Chinese, including the wealthy, fled mainland turbulence and settled in the colony, contributing to its economy.Sir John Davis (the second colonial governor) offered an alternative origin; Davis said that the name derived from "Hoong-keang" ("red torrent"), reflecting the colour of soil over which a waterfall on the island flowed.Some corporations founded during the early colonial era still keep this name, including Hongkong Land, Hongkong Electric, Hongkong and Shanghai Hotels and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC).Although the territory's competitiveness in manufacturing gradually declined due to rising labour and property costs, it transitioned to a service-based economy.
Its population rebounded quickly after the war, as skilled Chinese migrants fled from the Chinese Civil War, and more refugees crossed the border when the Communist Party took control of mainland China in 1949.
), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China.
With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities until Hong Kong Island became a colony of the British Empire at the end of the First Opium War in 1842.
With a rapidly increasing population, the colonial government began reforms to improve infrastructure and public services.
The public-housing estate programme, the Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC), and Mass Transit Railway were established during the post-war decades to provide safer housing integrity in the civil service, and more-reliable transportation.