Science types dating
Environmental archaeology answers questions relating to the kind of natural habitat that the ancient people were surrounded by, the plants and animals living in that age, varieties of wild and cultivated crops, animals that were hunted and those which were domesticated, species of plants and animals that are now extinct, climatic changes that took place over a period of time, and the effects that the changes in natural environment had on the lives of the people and on their subsequent disappearance.
Environmental archaeology encompasses field studies along with laboratory experiments. Malti Nagar carried out an ethnoarchaeological study at a chalcolithic site of Ahar in Rajasthan, India.
By using ethnoarchaeological techniques, archaeologists, in a way, attempt to link the past with the present.
They try to understand how the ancient people in a given region may have lived, keeping as their basis, the tangible and intangible culture of the modern communities.
Ethnoarchaeology is the science that deals with the ethnographic investigation of living communities in order to acquire knowledge of the past.
It involves the application of anthropological methods to a large extent.
This is because, even if two societies share some common traits, they may be distinct from each other in many aspects, which tend to change by default over a period of time.
Nevertheless, studying advanced techniques of modern communities may help to a certain extent to provide an insight into the rudimentary techniques, which may have been used by the ancients.
Household archaeology is a comparatively recent development in archaeology that happened between the late 1970s and early 1980s.One can get valuable insights into ancient social structures, religious and cultural beliefs, technology, etc., by applying the principles of ethnoarchaeology.But, the link between modern and ancient societies is of course still very ambiguous.These include natural changes with respect to topography, climate, soil, natural calamities such as floods, landslides, tsunamis, rivers changing their courses, and so on, and human induced changes such as agriculture, industrial and construction activities, clearing of forest areas, etc.Interestingly, the methods in landscape archaeology are also used in order to analyze inequalities that may have prevailed in a social structure at a given period of time. Penelope Allison of the University of Leicester had been excavating the household remains at Pompeii.